Florence is the eighth Italian municipality by population and the first in Tuscany.
The city of Florence is the heart of the Florence – Prato – Pistoia metropolitan area, a conurbation with more than 1 520 000 inhabitants
In the Middle Ages it was an important artistic, cultural, commercial, political, economic and financial center. In the modern age it was the capital of the Grand Duchy of Tuscany, from 1569 to 1859, with the government of the Medici and Lorraine families.
In 1865 Florence was proclaimed capital of the Kingdom of Italy (second, after Turin). The city maintained this status until 1871, the year that marked the end of the Risorgimento.
Important university center and UNESCO World Heritage Site, it is considered a place of origin of the Renaissance and is universally recognized as one of the cradles of art and architecture, as well as renowned as one of the most beautiful cities in the world, thanks to its numerous monuments and museums – including the Duomo, Santa Croce, the Uffizi, Ponte Vecchio, Piazza della Signoria and Palazzo Pitti.
Florence is located in a scenic location, in the middle of a large amphitheater basin at the south-eastern end of the Florence-Prato-Pistoia plain, surrounded by the enchanting Argentine hills of Cercina, just above the Rifredi district and the hospital of Careggi (to the north), from the hills of Fiesole (to the north-east), of Settignano (to the east), and of Arcetri, Poggio Imperiale and Bellosguardo (to the south).
The plain where the city stands is crossed by the Arno (the city itself divides its course between upper Valdarno and lower Valdarno) and by minor watercourses such as the Mugnone, the Terzolle and the river Greve.